8 oz bottle will last approximately 6 months with recommended use (twice daily) in the mister.
Copperine can be used with a Nebulizer (2cc undiluted, three times a day) and added to a cold mist humidifier (a tablespoon/ 15 ml to a gallon of water).
Copperine is a daily use wellness strategy.
Copperine is an inhalable Copper-Zinc compound ionized with trace minerals, coated in plant-based polyphenol antioxidants and honey, made entirely from food-grade ingredients.
Copperine provides support for the immune, respiratory, lymphatic, and circulatory systems. It assists the body in protecting against oxidative stress, cellular damage, and cell death from superoxide and free radicals in the body.
Copperine can be used with a Copperine Mister, Nebulizer (2cc undiluted, three times a day) and added to a cold mist humidifier (a tablespoon/ 15 ml to a gallon of water)
Copper is an essential trace element in most living organisms. It serves as a cofactor to assist in biochemical transformations for many redox enzymes and is critical for many biological functions encompassing antioxidant defense, neuropeptide synthesis, and immune function.
Up to 25% of people in North America may not be meeting the recommended copper intake.
Signs of Copper Deficiency
Fatigue and weakness
Weak and brittle bones
Problems with memory and learning
Sensitivity to cold
Premature gray hair
Copperine increases copper levels in the body with bioactive and enhanced bioavailable copper (as Cu2+) coated in antioxidants.
The balance of zinc homeostasis is crucial during infection to ensure the function of immune cells and to block access to zinc from invading microorganisms. Zinc deficiency in humans is associated with impaired response to several infectious diseases.
An abundance of evidence has accumulated over the past 50 years to demonstrate the antiviral activity of zinc against a variety of viruses and via numerous mechanisms.
Zinc deficiency is widespread, affecting up to a quarter of the population in developing countries and distinct groups in the developed world due to lifestyle, age, and disease-mediated factors.
Signs of Zinc deficiency
Unexplained weight loss
Wounds that won’t heal
Lack of alertness
Decreased sense of smell and taste
Loss of appetite
Open sores on the skin
Copperine increases zinc levels in the body with bioactive and enhanced bioavailable zinc coated in antioxidants.
Quercetin is a plant flavonol and has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-obesity, antidepressant, anticancer, and antidiabetic properties.
Research has shown that quercetin plays a role in preventing cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, hepatic, nephrotic, pancreatic, autophagic, reproductive, and digestive disorders and diseases.
Quercetin has numerous pro-health functions in the human body. It has antihemorrhagic activity against venom, with significant improvement in Creatinine quantity, Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), and Aspartate transaminase (AST) activity. In elderly patients with metabolic syndrome, quercetin promotes cardio-metabolic benefit. Quercetin inhibits the entry of coronavirus (SARS-CoV) into the host cell and is a potent inhibitor of the SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro), suggesting that this flavonoid is also active against COVID-19. Quercetin significantly decreases histamine and protein contents, PLA2 activity, and recruitments of leukocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and improves eosinophils and neutrophils' infiltration.
Quercetin via inhalation ameliorates radiation pneumonitis by reducing the number of inflammatory cells and attenuating the inflammatory response and pathological changes. Researchers found enhancement of quercetin when in the presence of the lipid/emulsifying excipients in solid lipid microparticles, as found in Copperine.
Researchers found that oral administration of quercetin effectively inhibited decreased lung function and hyperreactivity, in correlation with the suppression of inflammation and fibrosis, by a mechanism that seems dependent on the NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX-4) blockade enzyme.
Quercetin has a prophylactic effect by protecting alveolar barrier integrity under a hypoxic microenvironment. It dramatically alleviates the protein oxidation followed by an elevation in catalase activity in the lungs under hypoxia.
The antihyperglycemic action of quercetin is due to several identified mechanisms, among which insulin sensitivity enhancement, glycogen synthesis promotion, and insulin resistance improvement are common. Quercetin promotes the insulin sensitization effect by stimulating pancreatic β-cell proliferation, improving glucose metabolism and insulin secretion. Quercetin is an α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitor. In addition, quercetin improved plasma insulin levels and decreased blood glucose in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes models through maintaining the mass and function of β-cells and thus increasing the serum insulin effect. On the other hand, in alloxan-diabetic animal models, quercetin reduced islet cell failure, enhanced the insulin secretion of β-cells, and further prevented diabetes through decreasing oxidative stress.
For many centuries, worldwide, people have used honey as a nutrient, an ointment, and medicine. Modern research has demonstrated that honey has many medicinal properties, reflected in its antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory bioactivities. Honey contains sugars, water, and many minor components, including minerals, vitamins, proteins, and polyphenols.
Honey contains vesicle-like bioactive nanoparticles (H-VLNs). H-VLNs are membrane-bound nano-scale particles that contain lipids, proteins, and small-sized RNAs. H-VLNs impede the formation and activation of the nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat related (NLR) family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, which is a crucial inflammatory signaling platform in the innate immune system.
Tannins are polyphenolic secondary metabolites with high molecular weights, naturally present in various fruits, vegetables, cereals, and leguminous seeds. Many tannins contain well-recognized protective anticancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antihyperglycemic properties.
The primary cause of human illness and death around the world is respiratory diseases.
Both inflammation and redox (oxidation-reduction) reaction imbalances are involved in the pathogenesis of chronic lung diseases. Accompanying the inflammatory response is the release of proinflammatory mediators and the influx of inflammatory cells.
These proinflammatory factors also stimulate the release of oxygen- and nitrogen-derived radicals, leading to oxidative stress. Oxidative stress activates a wide variety of redox-sensitive signal transduction pathways, which leads to the differential expression of some genes involved in the inflammatory process. Hence, inflammation and oxidative stress are strongly interconnected and co-dependent processes. Tannins have an essential role in mitigating inflammation and oxidative stress induced by various agents. Tannins have demonstrated remarkable scavenging properties towards several stable radicals such as hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radicals, and superoxide radicals.
Acute Lung Injury (ALI) and its severe form Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are a widespread condition arising from lung injuries, which causes substantial mortality worldwide.
ALI and ARDS hallmarks include severe inflammation, epithelial and endothelial barrier disruption, overproduction of cytotoxic and inflammatory mediators, flood alveoli, impaired surfactant synthesis and metabolism, and reduced lung compliance.
Either directly or indirectly, ALI and ARDS can be caused by many risk factors such as sepsis, severe pneumonia, acute pancreatitis, aspirating gastric contents, massive transfusions, inhaled toxic gases, certain types of drugs, and so on. The only treatment proven to improve survival is general supportive care combined with mechanical ventilation with low tidal volume. Research has shown that Tannins can suppress ALI induced by various agents and causes.
Treatment with Proanthocyanidin (condensed Tannin) effectively inhibited inflammation, edema, fibrosis, and iNOS expression. Tannins could modulate the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis through numerous mechanisms. Treatment with tannins reduces allergic airway inflammation associated with conditions like asthma
Proanthocyanidin polymeric tannins have antifungal activity against the opportunistic pathogenic yeast C. albicans and planktonic and biofilm cells of Candida non-albicans (CNA) and presented efficacy in the control of candidiasis in a murine model.
Vitamin C - Ascorbic Acid
Vitamin C is a vitamin found in various foods and sold as a dietary supplement and functions as an antioxidant. Vitamin C is an essential nutrient involved in repairing tissue and the enzymatic production of certain neurotransmitters. The body needs vitamin C for the functioning of several critical enzymes and immune system function.
Vitamin C functions as a cofactor in many enzymatic reactions that mediate various essential biological functions, including wound healing and collagen synthesis.
Researchers found that Lower vitamin C concentrations are associated with cognitive impairment, including Alzheimer's disease and dementia. Supplemental Vitamin C improves immune function in the elderly.
Vitamin C has antioxidant and anti-apoptotic potentials against neurotoxicity via suppression of oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, structural abnormalities, down-regulation of p53, and overexpression of Bcl2 in the nervous tissues.
Vitamin C has a cell-killing mechanism that induces reactive oxygen species and impaired mitochondrial membrane potential. Vitamin C is associated with tumor regression in advanced colon cancer and improved tolerability and side effects of standard cancer therapy. A combination of low doses of ascorbic acid with calcitriol (Vitamin D) improved asthma by decreasing oxidative stress and inflammation.
Cholecalciferol, also known as vitamin D3, is a secosteroid produced by the skin and present in certain foods such as dairy products, eggs, and fish. Its primary function is to maintain normal levels of calcium and phosphate in the serum. During winter and in areas with minimal sun exposure, dietary supplementation is necessary for optimal musculoskeletal health, and vitamin D supplementation is involved in the metabolism of bone minerals. Vitamin D leads to favorable prognoses in diseases such as hypertension, type 1 and 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), polycystic ovarian syndrome (POS), multiple sclerosis (MS), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and numerous dermatologic diseases.
Vitamin D has several mechanisms by which it reduces the risk of microbial infection and death. These mechanisms are categorized as physical barrier, innate immunity, and adaptive immunity.
Vitamin D helps maintain tight junctions, gap junctions, and adherens junctions. Vitamin D enhances cellular immunity by reducing the cytokine storm induced by the innate immune system. The innate immune system generates proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in response to viral and bacterial infections, as observed in COVID-19 patients.
Vitamin D can reduce the production of proinflammatory Th1 cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor α and interferon γ, while increasing the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines by macrophages. Cholecalciferol is a modulator of adaptive immunity as it suppresses responses mediated by the T helper cell type 1 (Th1) by repressing the production of inflammatory cytokines IL-2 and interferon-gamma (INFγ).
Additionally, Vitamin D promotes cytokine production by the T helper type 2 (Th2) cells, which helps enhance the indirect suppression of Th1 cells by complementing this with actions mediated by several cell types. Additionally, Vitamin D promotes induction of the T regulatory cells, thereby inhibiting inflammatory processes.
Vitamin D also has positive effects on the cardiovascular system by its antithrombotic effects. Vitamin D downregulates the expression of prothrombotic factors such as thrombospondin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and tissue factors such as vascular smooth muscle cell-derived tissue factor (VSMC-derived TF) via a VDR-mediated mechanism. Vitamin D has an anti-hypertrophic effect on the myocardium by inhibiting pro hypertrophic calcineurin, cardiac renin-angiotensin system (RAS), nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT), and myocardial proliferation.